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整个晚上都能用的太阳能Solar Energy, All Night Long
作者:Jonathan Fahey,雅文翻译

MIT professor Daniel G. Nocera has long been jealous of plants. He desperately wanted to do what they do--split water into hydrogen and oxygen and use the products to do work. That, he figures, is the only way we humans can solve our energy problems; enough energy pours down from the sun in one hour to power the planet's energy needs for a year.
麻省理工学院的丹尼尔.G.纳舍埃(Daniel G. Nocera)教授长期以来都对植物充满了羡慕之情。他竭尽全力地设法以人工方式完成植物光合作用过程—把水分解成氢和氧,然后加以利用。他认为,这是我们人类可以解决能源问题的唯一方法—太阳在一小时中通过光线倾泻到地球的能量,可以满足我们这个星球整整一年的能源需求。

In January, only a month after reevaluating his methodology in the face of a frustratingly slow process, he finally found a way. "For six months now I've been looking at the leaves and saying 'I own you guys!'"

Nocera's discovery--a cheap and easy way to store energy that he thinks will be used to change solar power into a mainstream energy source--will be published in the journal Science on Friday. "This is the nirvana of what we've been talking about for years," said Nocera, the Henry Dreyfus Professor of Energy at MIT. "Solar power has always been a limited, far-off solution. Now we can seriously think about solar power as unlimited--and soon."
纳舍埃(Nocera)的发现将发表在星期五的《科学》杂志上,这是一种廉价且方便的储存能源的方法,他认为用这一方法可以把太阳能变成主要的能源来源。“这就是我们几年来一直谈论的极乐世界,”麻省理工学院能源亨利.德雷福斯教授奖(Henry Dreyfus Professor of Energy)得主纳舍埃(Nocera)说。“一直以来,太阳能都是一种受限、遥不可及的解决方案。现在我们可以真正地把太阳能视为无限制的能源方案—不久就会变成现实。”

Plants catch light and turn it into an electric current, then use that energy to excite catalysts that split water into hydrogen and oxygen during what is called photosynthesis' light cycle. The energy is then used during the dark cycle to allow the plant to build sugars used for growth and energy storage.

Nocera and Matthew Kanan, a postdoctoral fellow in Nocera's lab, focused on the water-splitting part of photosynthesis. They found cheap and simple catalysts that did a remarkably good job. They dissolved cobalt and phosphate in water and then zapped it with electricity through an electrode. The cobalt and phosphate form a thin-film catalyst around the electrode that then use electrons from the electrode to split the oxygen from water. The oxygen bubbles to the surface, leaving a proton behind.
纳舍埃(Nocera)和纳舍埃实验室的博士后研究员马特舒.凯纳恩(Matthew Kanan)把研究重点放在光合作用的水分解部分。他们找到了一些廉价、简单的催化剂,催化效果非常明显。他们把钴和磷酸盐溶解到水溶液中,然后,通过电极对它们进行电解。钴和磷酸盐在电极周围形成了薄膜型的催化剂,这些催化剂就利用电极发射的电子从水中分解氢和氧。氧气泡浮出水面,水中就留下了质子。

A few inches away, another catalyst, platinum, helps that bare proton become hydrogen. (This second reaction is a well-known one, and not part of Nocera and Kanan's study.)

The hydrogen and oxygen, separated and on-hand, can be used to power a fuel cell whenever energy is needed.

"Once you put a photovoltaic on it," he says, "you've got an inorganic leaf."

James Barber, a biochemistry professor at Imperial College London who studies artificial photosynthesis but was not involved in this research, called the discovery by Nocera and Kanan a "giant leap" toward generating clean, carbon-free energy on a massive scale.
伦敦帝国理工学院(Imperial College London)的生物化学家詹姆斯. 巴博(James Barber)教授一直在从事人工光合作用的研究,不过他没有介入该研究,他称纳舍埃(Nocera)和凯纳恩(Kanan)的发现,是大规模转向清洁、不产生二氧化碳的能源进程中的“巨大飞跃”。

"This is a major discovery with enormous implications for the future prosperity of humankind," he said. "The importance of their discovery cannot be overstated."

Nocera's discovery arose from frustration. Disappointed with the pace of his lab's progress, Nocera and his team decided in December to question some of the basic assumptions they had made in setting up earlier experiments.

Chemists, it turns out, are always worrying about the stability of their catalysts and end up doing backflips to try to synthesize materials that won't corrode. Photosynthesis, though, is so violently reactive that the catalysts involved break down every 30 minutes. The leaf has to constantly rebuild them. Maybe, thought Nocera, instead of fighting corrosion, he should work with it. "It's a bias a lot of scientists have. We want something to be structurally stable. But all it has to be is functionally stable."

This thinking led Nocera to try his cobalt-phosphate mixture. He knew it wouldn't hold together, but he thought it might still work. Sure enough, Nocera's catalyst breaks down whenever the electricity is cut, but it assembles itself again when electricity is reapplied.

Nocera's discovery is still a science experiment. It needs plenty of engineering before it can be a useful device. The cobalt and phosphate at the center of Nocera's work is cheap and plentiful, but the hydrogen reaction uses platinum, which is rare and expensive. The electrode needs to be improved so the oxygen-making process can speed up. And the system needs to be integrated into some kind of electricity-producing device, ideally powered by solar or wind on one end and a fuel cell on the other.

But splitting the oxygen away from the water was the hard part, and Nocera has done it. "Now we can start thinking about a totally distributed solar [photovoltaic] system," he said. "We couldn't have a solar economy unless it could produce energy 24/7. Now we can."

His hope is that because unlike traditional electrolysis devices, which are expensive and require toxic alkaline solutions, his system is so cheap, simple and benign that scientists and engineers around the world will be able to improve it quickly.

For his part, Nocera says he will work to understand and improve both sides of his new discovery. His lab will try to learn every detail about just how his catalyst is making the oxygen. And he is going to work with his engineering colleagues at MIT to try to integrate his storage device into systems that he hopes one day will power homes and cars all day and all night.

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